Towards more effective differential diagnosis of MS

With a wide range of syndromes resembling multiple sclerosis (MS) both clinically and on imaging, and the increasing availability of highly specific treatments targeting certain molecular pathways, making an accurate diagnosis is more important than ever.

The neurologic differential diagnoses related to MS are often rare, but should not be overlooked. To avoid delays in appropriate care due to an inaccurate initial diagnosis, it is helpful to review and update the differential diagnosis.1, 2 What are some of the advances that have been made most recently, and what are the implications for patient care?